The Chemical Process

Functional method

Nano particles and nano structures are put together out of 100 to 100,000 atoms or molecules and have physical and chemical characteristics or biological functions which most single atoms/molecules or objects don’t have.

Not only the Lotus-flower, but also many other plants and insects have self-cleaning characteristics. This self-cleaning effect we know as a natural phenomenon has arrived in the technical world and it is possible to apply it on almost any technical surface.

Scientists found out that the surface doesn't need to become smooth, but rather a "rough" surface must occur after the substrate was sealed.
The refined surface reduces the contact so that dirt cannot adhere to the surface. Also, the water that comes in contact with the surface is not able to build a film, it can only build small beads that drop off much faster and take most of the dirt with them. 
The so obtained self-cleaning characteristics (or easy-to-clean characteristics) reduce the cleaning expense and periodly protect the surface against aging, aggressive environmental influences and chalk deposits. 

The system that provides the basis to produce the kinds of chemicals that provide these characteristics is the so-called "Sol-Gel"-System:

In this chemical procedure, the 'sol' (or solution) gradually evolves towards the formation of a gel-like diphasic system containing both a liquid phase and solid phase whose morphologies range from discrete particles to continuous polymer networks. In the case of the colloid, the volume fraction of particles (or particle density) may be so low that a significant amount of fluid may need to be removed initially for the gel-like properties to be recognized. This can be accomplished in any number of ways. The simplest method is to allow time for sedimentation to occur, and then pour off the remaining liquid. Centrifugation can also be used to accelerate the process of phase separation.

Removal of the remaining liquid (solvent) phase requires a drying process, which is typically accompanied by a significant amount of shrinkage and densification. The rate at which the solvent can be removed is ultimately determined by the distribution of porosity in the gel. The ultimate microstructure of the final component will clearly be strongly influenced by changes imposed upon the structural template during this phase of processing.

Afterwards, a thermal treatment, or firing process, is often necessary in order to favor further polycondensation and enhance mechanical properties and structural stability via final sintering, densification and grain growth. One of the distinct advantages of using this methodology as opposed to the more traditional processing techniques is that densification is often achieved at a much lower temperature.

The precursor sol can be either deposited on a substrate to form a film (e.g., by dip coating or spin coating), cast into a suitable container with the desired shape (e.g., to obtain monolithic ceramics, glasses, fibers, membranes, aerogels), or used to synthesize powders (e.g., microspheres, nanospheres). The sol-gel approach is a cheap and low-temperature technique that allows for the fine control of the product’s chemical composition. Even small quantities of dopants, such as organic dyes and rare earth elements, can be introduced in the sol and end up uniformly dispersed in the final product. It can be used in ceramics processing and manufacturing as an investment casting material, or as a means of producing very thin films of metal oxides for various purposes. Sol-gel derived materials have diverse applications in optics, electronics, energy, space, (bio)sensors, medicine (e.g., controlled drug release), reactive material and separation (e.g., chromatography) technology.